Understanding and Treating Erectile Dysfunction 

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to achieve or maintain an erection. It is a common condition that affects millions of men worldwide, and can have a significant impact on their quality of life. 

ED is caused by a variety of factors, both physical and psychological. The most common causes of ED include: 


  1. Cardiovascular disease: Conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) can reduce blood flow to the penis, making it difficult to achieve or maintain an erection. 
  2. Diabetes: Men with diabetes are at a higher risk of developing ED due to damage to the blood vessels and nerves that control erection. 
  3. Obesity: Excess weight can contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, both of which can cause ED. 
  4. Low testosterone levels: Testosterone is a key hormone that plays a role in sexual function. Low levels of testosterone can lead to decreased sexual desire and ED. 
  5. Psychological factors: Stress, anxiety, and depression are common psychological causes of ED. These conditions can make it difficult to relax and enjoy sexual activity. 
  6. Medications: Certain medications, such as antidepressants and blood pressure medications, can cause ED as a side effect. 
  7. Neurological conditions: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and spinal cord injury can affect the nerves and blood vessels that control erection. 
  8. Chronic illnesses: Certain chronic illnesses such as kidney disease, liver disease, and lung disease can cause ED. 
  9. Hormonal imbalances: Hormones such as thyroid hormones, prolactin and cortisol can affect sexual function, leading to ED. 


It is important to note that ED can have multiple causes and in some cases, can be caused by a combination of factors. 

The symptoms of erectile dysfunction (ED) vary from person to person. The symptoms can be temporary or long-lasting, and can range from mild to severe. Some of the most common symptoms of ED include: 

Difficulty getting an erection: Men with ED may find it difficult to achieve or maintain an erection. 

  1. Reduced sexual desire: Men with ED may experience a decrease in sexual desire or interest. 
  2. Difficulty ejaculating: Men with ED may have difficulty ejaculating or may experience a decrease in the force of ejaculation. 
  3. Early ejaculation: Men with ED may ejaculate prematurely, before or shortly after penetration. 
  4. Soft erections: Men with ED may have erections that are not hard enough for sexual intercourse. 
  5. Inability to get an erection: Men with ED may be unable to get an erection at all. 
  6. Difficulty keeping an erection: Men with ED may have difficulty keeping an erection long enough for intercourse 


If you are experiencing any of these symptoms and it’s affecting your sexual life, it’s important to seek medical attention. Your doctor can help you identify the cause of your ED and recommend an appropriate treatment plan.  


Erectile dysfunction is usually diagnosed by the primary care physician and may warrant a referral to a urologist. Blood test and imaging studies may be done to investigate the cause of your ED. It is important to be honest and open with your doctor about your symptoms and any concerns you may have. 

There are several treatment options available including medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes. 

  1. Medications such as sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra) can help improve blood flow to the penis, making it easier to achieve and maintain an erection. These medications are known as phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors. 
  2. Hormone therapy: If low testosterone levels are found to be the cause of ED, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be an option. HRT can help increase testosterone levels, which can improve sexual function. 
  3. Intraurethral therapy: A small suppository is inserted into the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body) using a special applicator. The medication is then absorbed through the lining of the urethra into the bloodstream. 
  4. Therapy: Therapy can also be helpful in addressing psychological causes of ED, such as stress, anxiety, and depression. 
  5. Lifestyle changes: Making lifestyle changes such as exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, quitting smoking and reducing alcohol consumption can also help improve ED symptoms. 

The best treatment option will depend on the underlying cause of the condition and other factors such as the patient’s age, general health, and preferences. 


It’s important to remember that ED is a common condition that have a significant impact on the quality of life. The first step in addressing ED is to seek medical attention. Don’t be afraid or ashamed to talk to your doctor about your concerns and discuss available treatment options.  

About The Author

Dr. Coco is a highly-educated and well-qualified primary care physician who graduated from the University of the Philippines Baguio with a Bachelor of Science in Biology and her Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of the East Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center. She completed her three-year residency training in Family Medicine at Brokenshire Medical Center. She passed her diplomate exams in Family Medicine, given by the Philippine Academy of Family Physicians in 2018. 


Dr. Coco is dedicated to providing comprehensive and holistic care for her patients. She is a primary care physician who believes in delivering continuing comprehensive health care for all. To her, patients are not just a number as she takes time to analyse how she can improve their overall health every chance they can get. 

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