Leptospirosis: Prevention of this Zoonotic Disease

Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection caused by the Leptospira genus of spirochetes. It is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans, and can affect both animals and humans. The bacteria are found in the urine of infected animals, and can enter the body through cuts or abrasions in the skin or through mucous membranes, such as the eyes or nose. 

Causes of Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is caused by the Leptospira genus of spirochetes, which are found in the urine of infected animals. These animals can include cattle, pigs, horses, dogs, and wild animals such as rats, raccoons, and skunks. The bacteria can enter the human body through cuts or abrasions in the skin, or through mucous membranes, such as the eyes or nose. People who are at a higher risk for contracting leptospirosis include farmers, veterinarians, and people who work with animals, such as animal handlers and meat processors. 

Symptoms of Leptospirosis

The symptoms of leptospirosis can vary widely, and can range from mild to severe. Some people may have no symptoms at all, while others may develop severe and life-threatening complications. Common symptoms of leptospirosis include fever, headache, muscle aches, chills, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. These symptoms usually appear within 2 to 30 days after exposure to the bacteria. Some people may also develop a rash or jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). 


In severe cases, leptospirosis can lead to kidney and liver failure, meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord), and respiratory distress. These severe symptoms can be life-threatening if left untreated. 

Treatment of Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is treated with antibiotics. Doxycycline and penicillin are the antibiotics of choice for treating leptospirosis. These antibiotics are usually given for 7 to 14 days. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to support vital functions and to administer antibiotics intravenously. 


It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you may have leptospirosis, especially if you have been exposed to animals or their urine, or if you have recently been in an area where leptospirosis is common. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent severe complications and can reduce the risk of death. 


Prevention of Leptospirosis 

Preventing leptospirosis is crucial to avoid the disease.The following measures can help prevent leptospirosis: 

  • Avoid contact with animals or their urine, especially if you are working with animals or in an area where leptospirosis is common 
  •  Wear protective clothing, such as gloves and boots, when working with animals or in an area where leptospirosis is common 
  •  Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after coming into contact with animals or their urine 
  •  Avoid swimming or wading in freshwater, such as rivers, lakes, and ponds, if you are in an area where leptospirosis is common  
  • Avoid drinking untreated water from freshwater sources 

In addition to the measures mentioned above, there are several other steps that can be taken to prevent the spread of leptospirosis. These include: 

  • Implementing good hygiene practices on farms and in other environments where animals are present, such as regularly cleaning and disinfecting animal housing and feeding areas. 
  • Controlling rodent populations, as they are a common carrier of Leptospira bacteria. 
  • Educating people who work with animals, such as farmers and veterinarians, about the risks of leptospirosis and the measures they can take to prevent it. 

It’s important to note that the Leptospirosis can also be caused by the exposure of water, soil, or food contaminated with animal urine. For that reason, it is crucial for people who live in or visit areas where leptospirosis is common to take steps to prevent exposure to contaminated water, soil, or food. 


To sum up, Leptospirosis is a serious bacterial infection that can cause severe and even life-threatening complications if left untreated. However, by understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment of leptospirosis, and by taking steps to prevent it, people can reduce their risk of contracting the disease. If you suspect you may have leptospirosis, seek medical attention immediately to avoid severe complications and to reduce the risk of death. 

About The Author

Dr. Krisca is a highly-educated and skilled physician who has obtained a BS Public Health degree from the University of the Philippines Manila and a Doctor of Medicine degree from the De La Salle Medical Health Sciences Institute. She is a licensed physician and also a Registered Medical Technologist. She has received additional training in Hemodialysis for Non-Nephro Physicians on duty and has completed online courses in related fields like depression in populations from John Hopkins University and positive psychiatry from The University of Sydney. Currently, she is pursuing a Master of International Health in the University of the Philippines. 


Dr. Krisca is known for her outstanding skills and compassionate approach to healthcare that make a positive impact on people’s lives. Through her passion for healthcare, she hopes to make a difference in the world and help people lead healthier, happier lives. 

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