Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 is a chronic medical condition that affects millions of people globally. It is a metabolic disorder characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The body is unable to utilize glucose effectively, leading to a range of symptoms and complications. In this article, we will explore the symptoms, causes, and treatments for Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in detail.
Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
- The symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 may develop gradually over time, making it challenging to diagnose the condition in its early stages. Some of the most common symptoms of the condition include:
- Increased thirst and frequent urination
- Excessive hunger
- Blurred vision
- Tingling or numbness in the feet or hands
- Fatigue and weakness
- Slow healing of cuts and wounds
- Dark, velvety patches of skin (Acanthosis Nigricans)
- Yeast infections
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is essential to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent the development of more severe complications.
Causes of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some of the most common causes of the condition include:
- Insulin Resistance – The cells of the body become resistant to insulin, leading to a decrease in the efficiency of glucose uptake. As a result, the glucose levels in the blood increase, leading to the development of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2.
- Obesity – Excessive weight gain is a risk factor for Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. The excess body fat affects the function of insulin, leading to insulin resistance and high glucose levels in the blood.
- Inactivity – A sedentary lifestyle is associated with the development of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. Physical activity helps regulate glucose levels in the blood, and a lack of exercise can increase the risk of developing the condition.
- Poor Diet – A diet high in refined carbohydrates, sugar, and unhealthy fats can increase the risk of developing Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. The unhealthy foods increase insulin resistance and glucose levels in the blood, leading to the development of the condition.
- Age – The risk of developing Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 increases with age. The older we get, the less efficient our body becomes at utilizing insulin, leading to insulin resistance and high glucose levels in the blood.
Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 is a chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment to manage symptoms and prevent the development of complications. The treatment plan for the condition will depend on the individual’s age, lifestyle, and the severity of symptoms. Some of the most common treatments for Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 include:
- Lifestyle Changes – Making changes to your diet and exercise routine is one of the most effective ways to manage Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. A diet low in refined carbohydrates, sugar, and unhealthy fats, and regular physical activity can help regulate glucose levels in the blood and improve insulin sensitivity.
- Medications – Oral medications, such as metformin, sulfonylureas, and DPP-4 inhibitors, are commonly used to treat Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. These medications work by improving insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in the cells, leading to a reduction in glucose levels in the blood.
- Insulin Therapy – If lifestyle changes and oral medications are not effective in controlling glucose levels in the blood, insulin therapy may be necessary. Insulin therapy involves injecting insulin into the body to regulate glucose levels. The type and frequency of insulin injections will be determined by the individual’s glucose levels and symptoms.
- Continuous Glucose Monitoring – Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a device that helps people with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 monitor their glucose levels throughout the day. The device provides real-time glucose readings and alerts the individual when their glucose levels become too high or too low.
- Foot Care – People with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 are at a higher risk of developing foot problems. Regular foot care, including regular inspections, cleaning, and wearing appropriate footwear, can help prevent the development of foot complications.
- Support Groups – Joining a support group can provide emotional support and help individuals with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 manage the condition more effectively. Support groups can also provide educational resources and information about new treatments and therapies.
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 is a chronic condition that affects millions of people globally. It is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors and is characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood. Symptoms of the condition include increased thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, and tingling or numbness in the feet or hands.
Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 includes lifestyle changes, medications, insulin therapy, continuous glucose monitoring, foot care, and support groups. Early diagnosis and effective management of the condition are essential to prevent the development of serious complications. If you experience any symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible.
About The Author
Dr. Krisca is a highly-educated and skilled physician who has obtained a BS Public Health degree from the University of the Philippines Manila and a Doctor of Medicine degree from the De La Salle Medical Health Sciences Institute. She is a licensed physician and also a Registered Medical Technologist. She has received additional training in Hemodialysis for Non-Nephro Physicians on duty and has completed online courses in related fields like depression in populations from John Hopkins University and positive psychiatry from The University of Sydney. Currently, she is pursuing a Master of International Health in the University of the Philippines.
Dr. Krisca is known for her outstanding skills and compassionate approach to healthcare that make a positive impact on people’s lives. Through her passion for healthcare, she hopes to make a difference in the world and help people lead healthier, happier lives.