All About Swimmers Ear 

Otitis externa, also known as swimmer’s ear, is a common infection of the outer ear canal that affects individuals of all ages. It is caused by bacteria or fungus entering the ear canal, typically through moisture and warmth. The infection leads to inflammation and irritation of the ear canal, which can cause a wide range of symptoms including itching, redness, and swelling of the ear canal, as well as pain and discharge. In severe cases, it can also lead to difficulty hearing and fever. 


There are a few risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing otitis externa. 

  1. The most common risk factor is swimming, especially in dirty or polluted water. Bacteria and fungus thrive in warm and moist environments, making the ear canal the perfect breeding ground for infection. 
  1. Individuals who have eczema or other skin conditions that affect the ear canal are also at a higher risk for developing otitis externa. 
  1. Additionally, people who clean their ears too aggressively or use cotton swabs can also be more susceptible to the condition. 


The symptoms of otitis externa can vary depending on the severity of the infection. Some symptoms include: 

  • Itching of ear 
  • Pain 
  • Feeling of fullness in the ear 
  • Difficulty in hearing or decreased hearing 
  • Fever 
  • Ear Discharge 
  • Redness of the affected area  

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to achieve or maintain an erection. It is a common condition that affects millions of men worldwide, and can have a significant impact on their quality of life. 

ED is caused by a variety of factors, both physical and psychological. The most common causes of ED include: 


  1. Cardiovascular disease: Conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) can reduce blood flow to the penis, making it difficult to achieve or maintain an erection. 
  2. Diabetes: Men with diabetes are at a higher risk of developing ED due to damage to the blood vessels and nerves that control erection. 
  3. Obesity: Excess weight can contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, both of which can cause ED. 
  4. Low testosterone levels: Testosterone is a key hormone that plays a role in sexual function. Low levels of testosterone can lead to decreased sexual desire and ED. 
  5. Psychological factors: Stress, anxiety, and depression are common psychological causes of ED. These conditions can make it difficult to relax and enjoy sexual activity. 
  6. Medications: Certain medications, such as antidepressants and blood pressure medications, can cause ED as a side effect. 
  7. Neurological conditions: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and spinal cord injury can affect the nerves and blood vessels that control erection. 
  8. Chronic illnesses: Certain chronic illnesses such as kidney disease, liver disease, and lung disease can cause ED. 
  9. Hormonal imbalances: Hormones such as thyroid hormones, prolactin and cortisol can affect sexual function, leading to ED. 


It is important to note that ED can have multiple causes and in some cases, can be caused by a combination of factors. 

The symptoms of erectile dysfunction (ED) vary from person to person. The symptoms can be temporary or long-lasting, and can range from mild to severe. Some of the most common symptoms of ED include: 

Difficulty getting an erection: Men with ED may find it difficult to achieve or maintain an erection. 

  1. Reduced sexual desire: Men with ED may experience a decrease in sexual desire or interest. 
  2. Difficulty ejaculating: Men with ED may have difficulty ejaculating or may experience a decrease in the force of ejaculation. 
  3. Early ejaculation: Men with ED may ejaculate prematurely, before or shortly after penetration. 
  4. Soft erections: Men with ED may have erections that are not hard enough for sexual intercourse. 
  5. Inability to get an erection: Men with ED may be unable to get an erection at all. 
  6. Difficulty keeping an erection: Men with ED may have difficulty keeping an erection long enough for intercourse 


If you are experiencing any of these symptoms and it’s affecting your sexual life, it’s important to seek medical attention. Your doctor can help you identify the cause of your ED and recommend an appropriate treatment plan.  


Erectile dysfunction is usually diagnosed by the primary care physician and may warrant a referral to a urologist. Blood test and imaging studies may be done to investigate the cause of your ED. It is important to be honest and open with your doctor about your symptoms and any concerns you may have. 

There are several treatment options available including medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes. 

  1. Medications such as sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra) can help improve blood flow to the penis, making it easier to achieve and maintain an erection. These medications are known as phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors. 
  2. Hormone therapy: If low testosterone levels are found to be the cause of ED, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be an option. HRT can help increase testosterone levels, which can improve sexual function. 
  3. Intraurethral therapy: A small suppository is inserted into the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body) using a special applicator. The medication is then absorbed through the lining of the urethra into the bloodstream. 
  4. Therapy: Therapy can also be helpful in addressing psychological causes of ED, such as stress, anxiety, and depression. 
  5. Lifestyle changes: Making lifestyle changes such as exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, quitting smoking and reducing alcohol consumption can also help improve ED symptoms. 

The best treatment option will depend on the underlying cause of the condition and other factors such as the patient’s age, general health, and preferences. 


It’s important to remember that ED is a common condition that have a significant impact on the quality of life. The first step in addressing ED is to seek medical attention. Don’t be afraid or ashamed to talk to your doctor about your concerns and discuss available treatment options.  


Treatment for otitis externa typically involves using ear drops that contain an antibiotic or antifungal medication. The ear drops are usually prescribed for 7-10 days, and the duration of treatment will depend on the severity of the infection. In some cases, oral antibiotics may also be prescribed. Over-the-counter pain relievers can help relieve discomfort. In severe cases, a corticosteroid may be used to reduce inflammation. 


It is important to see a doctor if you suspect that you have otitis externa. If left untreated, the infection can spread and cause serious complications. In addition, if you experience severe pain, fever, or difficulty hearing, it is important to seek medical attention right away. 


Preventing otitis externa is relatively simple. Keep the ears as dry as possible, especially after swimming or showering. Use ear plugs or a swimming cap to keep water out of the ears while swimming, and avoid cleaning the ears too aggressively. If you have eczema or other skin conditions, be sure to keep them under control to reduce the risk of infection. 


It is also important to avoid putting any foreign objects into the ear canal, as this can cause irritation and inflammation. This includes cotton swabs, bobby pins, and ear candles. If you have to use ear plugs, make sure they fit properly and do not insert them too deeply into the ear canal. 


In conclusion, otitis externa is a common infection of the outer ear canal that can affect anyone. It is caused by bacteria or fungus entering the ear canal through moisture and warmth. Symptoms include itching, redness, and swelling of the ear canal, as well as pain and discharge. Treatment involves using ear drops containing antibiotics or antifungal medication. Preventing otitis externa is simple, by keeping the ears dry, using ear plugs or a swimming cap, avoiding cleaning the ears too aggressively and keeping eczema or other skin conditions under control. If you suspect that you have otitis externa or if you experience severe pain, fever, or difficulty hearing, it is important to seek medical attention right away. 

About The Author

Dr. Leo is a highly-qualified and dedicated primary care physician who graduated from Manila Central University College of Medicine in 2018. He passed the Physician Licensure Exam in 2019, and has since gained valuable experience practicing in various settings such as being a company physician, doctor-on-duty for outpatient clinics, and a telemedicine practitioner. 


What sets Dr. Leo apart is his dual-certification as both a physician and a registered nurse, having passed the Philippine Nurse Licensure exam in 2012. He has a unique perspective on healthcare as he believes in taking a holistic approach addressing the root cause of an issue rather than just treating symptoms. He is dedicated to finding long-term solutions for current disorders and preventing new ones. 

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